Application of Pimonidazole Malignant Tissue

In Vitro Mammalian Cells, Spheroids and Engineered Tissue Models

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2. Sminia P, Acker H, Eikesdal HP, et al. Oxygenation and response to irradiation of organotypic multicellular spheroids of human glioma. Anticancer Res 2003; 23: 1461-6.

3. Prabhakaran K, Sampson DA, Hoehner JC. Neuroblastoma survival and death: an in vitro model of hypoxia and metabolic stress. J Surg Res 2004; 116: 288-96.

4. Chou SC, Azuma Y, Varia MA, Raleigh JA. Evidence that involucrin, a marker for differentiation, is oxygen regulated in human squamous cell carcinomas. Br J Cancer 2004; 90: 728-35.

5. Doege K, Heine S, Jensen I, Jelkmann W, Metzen E. Inhibition of mitochondrial respiration elevates oxygen concentration but leaves regulation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) intact. Blood 2005; 106: 2311-7.

6. Kleiter MM, Thrall DE, Malarkey DE, et al. A comparison of oral and intravenous pimonidazole in canine tumors using intravenous CCI-103F as a control hypoxia marker. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2006; 64: 592-602.

7. Meng F, Evans JW, Bhupathi D, et al. Molecular and cellular pharmacology of the hypoxia-activated prodrug TH-302. Mol Cancer Ther 2012; 11: 740-51.

Tumor Stem Cells

1. Conley SJ, Gheordunescu E, Kakarala P, et al. Antiangiogenic agents increase breast cancer stem cells via the generation of tumor hypoxia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2012; 109: 2784-9.